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Presencia de parásitos gastrointestinales en cerdos y humanos de cuatro granjas .. establecido en el Decreto de , artículo. 10 y la Ley 23 de Preventiva: Evitar que se produzca la enfermedad. Reparadora: efectos curativos de la enfermedad. Mitigadora: amortiguar efectos negativos. with a grant from the Cosmetic, toiletry and Fragrance .. Decreto No. , de 9 de the training set ( compounds) shall be representative of its.


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The freshly distilled wine spirit has a high concentration of ethanol and many volatile compounds, but is devoid of phenolic compounds other than volatile phenols. Therefore, an ageing period in the wooden barrel is required to attain sensory fullness and decreto 3380 de 1981 quality. During this process, several phenomena take place, namely the release of low molecular weight phenolic compounds and tannins from the wood into the wine spirit.

Research conducted over the last decades shows that they play a decisive role on the physicochemical characteristics and relevant sensory properties of the beverage. Their contribution decreto 3380 de 1981 the antioxidant activity has also been emphasized.

Besides, some studies show the modulating effect of the ageing technology, involving different factors such as the barrel features including the wood botanical species, those imparted by the cooperage technology, and the barrel sizethe cellar conditions, and the operations performed, on the phenolic composition and related properties of the aged wine spirit.

This review aims to summarize the main findings on this topic, taking into account two featured barrel characteristics—the botanical species of the wood and the toasting level.

Introduction The aged wine spirit is one of the most representative alcoholic beverages, taking into account production, trade [ 1 ], and consumption [ 2 ] worldwide.

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Its manufacture has a long history and a relevant socioeconomic role in the traditional wine countries, mainly in Europe. Among them, it is worth mentioning France and decreto 3380 de 1981 regions of Armagnac and Cognac that date back to the 15th and 16th centuries, respectively [ 345 ], producing the most prestigious and top-selling aged wine spirits.

According to the European legislation [ 7 ], the wine spirit can be aged decreto 3380 de 1981 at least one year in wood containers or for at least six months in wood containers with a capacity of less than L.

Actually, the freshly distilled wine spirit is characterised by a high concentration of ethanol and richness of volatile compounds, but is devoid of phenolic compounds other than volatile phenols [ 11 ].


Ageing in a wooden barrel of oak, chestnut, … is traditionally included in wine spirit production technology, being recognized as a crucial step for adding value to the product. During this process, the beverage undergoes important modifications and becomes a complex mixture decreto 3380 de 1981 hundreds of compounds in an ethanol-water matrix [ 12 ], leading to sensory fullness and improvement of its quality.

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There is much to know about the chemistry underpinning the ageing of wine spirits, but the scientific community unquestionably accepts that those physicochemical and sensory changes result from several phenomena [ 131415161718192021 ] such as: Direct extraction of wood constituents; Decomposition of wood biopolymers lignin, hemicelluloses and cellulose followed by the release of derived compounds into the distillate; Chemical reactions involving only the wood extractable compounds; Chemical reactions involving only the distillate decreto 3380 de 1981 Chemical reactions between the wood extractable compounds and the distillate compounds; Evaporation of volatile compounds and concentration of volatile and non-volatile compounds; Formation of a hydrogen-bonded decreto 3380 de 1981 between ethanol and water.

Among these phenomena, the release of wood extractable compounds into the wine spirit, namely decreto 3380 de 1981 molecular weight phenolic compounds and tannins, plays a decisive role in its chemical composition, sensory properties [ 222324 ] and overall quality.

In addition, oxidation reactions involving these compounds and those of the distillate are of paramount importance [ 2526272829 ]. They are triggered by the slow and continuous diffusion of oxygen through the space between staves and through the wood [ 30decreto 3380 de 198132 ].

The research carried out over the last decades has shown that the aforementioned changes are closely related to the action of factors ruling the ageing process, namely: Concerning the resulting sensory properties, positive correlations between the phenolic composition and the color were established [ 23decreto 3380 de 198140 ], which are in accordance with the findings in studies on Porto wine [ 41 ] and wine [ 4243444546 ].

Notwithstanding the intricate effect of compounds on aroma and flavour owing to the complexity of their interactions and the multiple sensations involved [ 4748 ], some decreto 3380 de 1981 have been often related to the phenolic composition of the aged wine spirit and of other aged beverages.

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There is evidence on the relationship between: Among these properties, the vanilla aroma should be highlighted due to its outstanding importance for aged wine spirit quality [ 55 decreto 3380 de 1981, 5657 ]. The relationship between astringency and ellagitannin and gallotannin concentrations is still unclear for thesekind of beverages [ 48515253545859 ].

In addition, the phenolic compounds in this case almost exclusively extracted from the wood exhibit a wide range of biological effects, many of which have been decreto 3380 de 1981 to their antioxidant activity.


Several studies mention the antioxidant activity of some phenolic acids [ 60616263646566decreto 3380 de 19816869 ], phenolic aldehydes [ 7071 ], coumarins [ 72 ], tannins [ 6567737475 ], lignans [ 76 ], and of some volatile phenols [ 77 ].