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The long-term success of an antiretroviral regimen depends on maintaining inhibitory concentrations of active drug at the site of HIV replication sufficient to. The basis of drug therapy of HIV disease/AIDS is to use available medicines in combinations that act at different phases of the virus cycle, both. There are now some 22 drugs available in the UK which can be used in the treatment of HIV infection. Most are given in combination to delay the onset of drug.


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The Pharmacology of HIV Drug Resistance

Abstract Drug resistance to human immunodeficiency virus HIV is a major factor in the failure of antiretroviral therapy. In the course, students hiv pharmacology first given an overview that includes key structural components of HIV and a discussion of the HIV life hiv pharmacology.

A detailed presentation on the pharmacology of the various classes of antiretroviral agents follows. The clinical impact and prevalence of HIV drug hiv pharmacology is then discussed along with factors that might contribute to it.

Mechanisms of drug resistance for each class of antiretroviral agents are presented in detail followed by a discussion of the basis and clinical utility of HIV drug resistance testing. Finally, new targets for HIV pharmacotherapy are presented along with an overview of new hiv pharmacology agents that are being developed.

Content taught in lecture is reinforced by relevant case studies that students work on in small groups during the recitation period.

Global HIV/AIDS Clinical and Translational Pharmacology

Unfortunately, the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy can be markedly reduced by the emergence of drug resistance. Drug resistant viruses are often resistant hiv pharmacology multiple classes of antiretroviral drugs.


This drug cross-resistance coupled with the often unpredictable development of drug resistance significantly complicates HIV therapy.

Successful treatment of HIV requires a detailed knowledge of the various mechanisms by which resistance can arise as well as an understanding of strategies for overcoming resistance once it occurs. HIV drug resistance testing is proving to be a powerful tool that can help clinicians tailor their treatment regimen to the specific HIV strain s that infect their patients.

In addition, numerous new agents hiv pharmacology classes of antiretroviral drug are currently under development in an effort to keep pace with emerging HIV drug resistance.

At this point in the program, our students have completed a hiv pharmacology in Medical Microbiology and are familiar with the fundamental areas of pharmacology and medicinal chemistry taught in Integrated Sequence I.

Since students have just learned the mechanism of action for each of the hiv pharmacology drug classes it is a logical extrapolation to the mechanism of resistance for each class.

The Pharmacology of HIV Drug Resistance

When the clinical faculty hiv pharmacology presents antiretroviral therapeutics, they can do so knowing that students have an understanding of drug hiv pharmacology mechanisms, factors that contribute to the development of resistance, and the importance of HIV drug-resistance testing.

Student knowledge related to antiretroviral drug pharmacology and resistance is reinforced by the presentation of relevant case studies during a weekly 3-hour recitation period.

Students are given cases at the beginning of hiv pharmacology period and then broken into small pre-assigned groups to work through the cases. At the end of each case is a series of questions addressing various aspects of therapeutics, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, and pathophysiology related to HIV infection and treatment.

At the end of 2 hiv pharmacology, each group is expected to write the case and submit it for review and grading.

Each member of the group receives the same grade for the case write-up and presentation.


Giving each student in the group the same grade stimulates active involvement in the group process. Students who do not contribute significantly during the group hiv pharmacology sessions are often pressured by their peers in the group to increase their contribution.

HIV-1 antiretroviral drug therapy.

During the last hour of recitation, the class is hiv pharmacology back together and a member from each group chosen at random by the faculty member presents 1 of the case write-ups to the class and faculty hiv pharmacology.

Since students do not know ahead of time which of them will be presenting, they all need to be familiar with the content of the final case write-up. Students are encouraged to use PowerPoint slides or overhead transparencies for their presentation.

  • HIV-1 antiretroviral drug therapy.
  • AIDS Research and Treatment
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During this presentation phase, input and questions from students and faculty members are likewise encouraged.